Ans Porter’s Five Forces Model of Competition
Michael Porter (Harvard Business School Management Researcher) designed various vital frameworks for developing an organization’s strategy. One of the most renowned among managers making strategic decisions is the five competitive forces model that determines industry structure. According to Porter, the nature of competition in any industry is personified in the following five forces:
i. Threat of new potential entrants
ii. Threat of substitute product/services
iii. Bargaining power of suppliers
iv. Bargaining power of buyers
v. Rivalry among current competitors
FIGURE: Porter’s Five Forces model
The five forces mentioned above are very significant from point of view of strategy formulation. The potential of these forces differs from industry to industry. These forces jointly determine the profitability of industry because they shape the prices which can be charged, the costs which can be borne, and the investment required to compete in the industry. Before making strategic decisions, the managers should use the five forces framework to determine the competitive structure of industry.
Let’s discuss the five factors of Porter’s model in detail:
1. Risk of entry by potential competitors: Potential competitors refer to the firms which are not currently competing in the industry but have the potential to do so if given a choice. Entry of new players increases the industry capacity, begins a competition for market share and lowers the current costs. The threat of entry by potential competitors is partially a function of extent of barriers to entry. The various barriers to entry are-
• Economies of scale
• Brand loyalty
• Government Regulation
• Customer Switching Costs
• Absolute Cost Advantage
• Ease in distribution
• Strong Capital base
2. Rivalry among current competitors: Rivalry refers to the competitive struggle for market share between firms in an industry. Extreme rivalry among established firms poses a strong threat to profitability. The strength of rivalry among established firms within an industry is a function of following factors:
• Extent of exit barriers
• Amount of fixed cost
• Competitive structure of industry
• Presence of global customers
• Absence of switching costs
• Growth Rate of industry
• Demand conditions
3. Bargaining Power of Buyers: Buyers refer to the customers who finally consume the product or the firms who distribute the industry’s product to the final consumers. Bargaining power of buyers refer to the potential of buyers to bargain down the prices charged by the firms in the industry or to increase the firms cost in the industry by demanding better quality and service of product. Strong buyers can extract profits out of an industry by lowering the prices and increasing the costs. They purchase in large quantities. They have full information about the product and the market. They emphasize upon quality products. They pose credible threat of backward integration. In this way, they are regarded as a threat.
4. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Suppliers refer to the firms that provide inputs to the industry. Bargaining power of the suppliers refer to the potential of the suppliers to increase the prices of inputs( labour, raw materials, services, etc) or the costs of industry in other ways. Strong suppliers can extract profits out of an industry by increasing costs of firms in the industry. Suppliers products have a few substitutes. Strong suppliers’ products are unique. They have high switching cost. Their product is an important input to buyer’s product. They pose credible threat of forward integration. Buyers are not significant to strong suppliers. In this way, they are regarded as a threat.
5. Threat of Substitute products: Substitute products refer to the products having ability of satisfying customers needs effectively. Substitutes pose a ceiling (upper limit) on the potential returns of an industry by putting a setting a limit on the price that firms can charge for their product in an industry. Lesser the number of close substitutes a product has, greater is the opportunity for the firms in industry to raise their product prices and earn greater profits (other things being equal).
The power of Porter’s five forces varies from industry to industry. Whatever be the industry, these five forces influence the profitability as they affect the prices, the costs, and the capital investment essential for survival and competition in industry. This five forces model also help in making strategic decisions as it is used by the managers to determine industry’s competitive structure.
Porter ignored, however, a sixth significant factor- complementaries. This term refers to the reliance that develops between the companies whose products work is in combination with each other. Strong complementors might have a strong positive effect on the industry. Also, the five forces model overlooks the role of innovation as well as the significance of individual firm differences. It presents a stagnant view of competition.
Ans. Importance of Mission Vision in Organizational Strategy
A mission statement defines the business sector in which a company operates and sets out its key purpose. It summarizes what the company does and why. It also sets out how the company conducts its business and identifies key stakeholders, such as shareholders, customers and employees. A mission statement helps employees understand where their contribution fits into the company’s objectives. It also helps other stakeholders decide whether they want to do business with the organization.
A mission and vision are standard and critical elements of a company’s organizational strategy. Most established companies develop organizational mission statements and vision statements, which serve as foundational guides in the establishment of company objectives. The company then develops strategic and tactical plans for objectives.
• Mission Statement Purpose
• A company’s mission statement is essentially its statement of purpose. It serves as a guide for all of the company’s decision-making. Shareholders, leaders and employees are generally the target of the mission. It should help workers within the organization know what decisions and tasks best align with the mission of the company. A mission statement offers insight into what company leaders view as the primary purpose for being in business. Some companies have profit-motivated missions, while others make customers a focal point. Other firms use a mission to point out more altruistic intentions that ultimately lead to profits.
• Relationship to Organizational Strategy
• Strategic planning is the process of developing company objectives, strategies and tactics to achieve the mission of the organization. The company generates short and long-term objectives using the mission statement. Objectives may include market-share targets, revenue or profit goals, customer satisfaction scores and improved brand awareness. Next, it develops strategies to accomplish objectives. For instance, better training and monitoring of feedback scores are strategies to achieve higher customer satisfaction. Actionable steps or tactics are then developed. Hiring an outside training consultant for a series of service training sessions is a tactic tied to the customer satisfaction goal and the training strategy.
• Vision Statement Purpose
• Vision statements are sometimes confused or used synonymously with mission statements. However, vision statements should offer more of a direction and include a perspective of corporate values. A vision might provide a direction for the company for the next five to 10 years, while also noting a commitment to integrity, transparency, openness and other such values. “Mind tools,” indicates that a vision statement takes your mission and adds an element of human values. It should inspire employees and given them a sense of purpose.
When creating a mission statement there are a few simple guidelines that can be followed. It is important to remember the basics so the mission statement stays simple and straight to the point. Some researchers agree that it should be kept to between 30 and 60 words, while others believe it does not necessarily have to be that brief. Some organizations have mission statements that are only one sentence, while others are a paragraph. An example of a mission statement that is limited to one sentence is “Our business is selling houses and our mission is total customer satisfaction.” At a minimum, each mission statement should answer the following three questions: (1) What are the opportunities or needs the organization addresses? (2) What does the organization do to address those needs? and (3) What principles and values guide the organization? In other words, defining the organization’s purpose, business and values.
Read more: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/…/Mission-and-Vision-St…
• A good mission statement inspires employees and provides a focus and direction for setting lower level objectives. It should guide employees in making decisions and establish what the organization does. Mission statements are crucial for organizations to prosper and grow. While studies suggest that they have a positive impact on profitability and can increase shareholder equity, they also support that almost 40 percent of employees do not know or understand their company’s mission.Not only large corporations benefit from creating mission statements but small businesses as well. Entrepreneurial businesses are driven by vision and high aspirations. Developing a mission statement will help the small business realize their vision. Its primary purpose is to guide the entrepreneur and assist in refining the planning process. By developing a strategic plan that incorporates the mission statement, entrepreneurs are more likely to be successful and stay focused on what is important. The mission statement encourages managers and small business owners alike to consider the nature and scope of the business.
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